* доля в структуре ВВП
About the region
Yakutia - is largest Russian region, which territory (more than 3 mln. sq. km) exceeds the territory of many countries. It is located in the north-eastern part of Siberia. The most part of Sakha (Yakutia) territory - is taiga, which in the north is changed for forest tundra and tundra. More than 40% of Yakutia territory is located beyond the Arctic Circle. This republic is a ”champion” of the whole Northern hemisphere according to the absolute value of minimum temperature (up to -70 °C), as well as according to the duration of periods of negative temperatures (which are from 6.5 to 9 months).
Despite the difficult climatic conditions, Yakutsk, the administrative centre of the region, is the fourth according to the population among the cities of the Far Easter Federal District (267.9 thousand persons). Yakutsk airport (which unofficial name is Tuinaada) provides flight connection both with Russian cities, as well as with the countries of Asian-Pacific Region (Thailand, Korean Republic, and China). New passenger’s terminal of the airport, constructed in 2012, corresponds to all international standards.
Main natural wealth of the region is diamonds, and the driving force of Yakut economy is Alrosa Company, which mines diamonds. In 2014 more than 34 mln. carat of rough diamonds was mined in the republic, and the profit of Alrosa exceeded 207 bln. rubles. The share of Yakutia in global diamond mining is 25%, and in National diamond mining - 98%.
Nevertheless, Yakutia is famous not only for its diamond industry. In 2014 the republic was included into the list of top five regions, which are considered to be the leaders according to the volume of commercial minerals’ extraction (share of extraction in Gross Regional Product structure is about 44%). More than 23.5 ton of gold, 12.7 mln. ton of coal (leader of coal mining in the Far Eastern Federal District), 8.71 mln. ton of oil, 2 bln. cub. m of natural gas (according to the gas reserves, Yakutia takes the leading place in the Far Eastern Federal District) were mined in the territory of Yakutia. Many fields of commercial minerals, located in Yakutia, are considered to be complex and large-scale. In particular, largest Russian coal and uranium field is located at the territory of the republic.
Yakutia has unique energy potential. Duration of Yakut rivers is about 2 mln. km, and its potential hydraulic power resources are estimated at about 700 bln. kW/h per annum. One of the largest electric power stations in the Far East - Viluyiskaya HEP - is located in Yakutia. Capacity of the HEP is 680 MW, its average yearly output is 2.71 bln. kW/h.